Roofing Terms:

Call San Antonio Roofing Company @ 210-341-7663

Cricket: peaked diverter by the chimney to deflect water

Diverted; Used to direct water

Dormer: A Window projecting from a sloping roof

Eves: The overhang at the bottom of the roof

Fascia – A board generally behind gutter

Flashing – Metal used to seal around penetrations

Gable – The rake end of the roof

Gutter – Used to control roof drainage

Hip – The vertical ridge line nosing – Used on the perimeter at eaves & gable ends

Pipe Jacks – Heating & plumbing flashings for penetrations

Pitch or Slope – Describes how steep the roof is ridge – The peak of the roof

Roof Vent – Allows humidity to escape attic

Square – 10’ by 10’ area is one square of roof

Stack – Exhaust flue pipe generally for stoves

Underpayment – The felt or base sheet underneath

Valley – Where two roof planes come together

AGGREGATE -Crushed stone, slag or water-worn gravel that comes in a wide range of sizes. Used to surface built-up roofs.

ALLIGATORING -A characteristic of asphalt which occurs during the aging process in which the loss Of volatile oils and the
oxidation brought about by solar radiation produces a pattern of cracks which resemble an alligator hide, because of the limited
tolerance of asphalt to thermal expansion or contraction.

ASPHALT -Tar or similar bituminous solid substance. A natural material, that can be mixed with rock for paving, or applied as
water proofing, to various papers, felts, and sealant products.

BALLETS -Weight used to protect single-ply roofs or to prevent blow off of systems which are not adhered.

BACK NAILING -The practice of nailing roofing felts to the deck under the overlap, in addition to hot mopping, to prevent
slippage of felts.

BARE SPOTS -Small areas on a roof where the top membrane has become exposed to the elements.

BARREL ROOF - A roof design which in cross section is arched.

BASE PLY - An asphalt-saturated and/or coated felt installed as the first ply with 4 inch laps in a built-up roof system under the
following felts which can be installed in a shingle like fashion.

BATTEN -Cedar or redwood board, 3/4" thick, 2" wide, 4' long. Nailed to roof deck to hold certain kinds of tile

BID -Written offering, of price for work to be performed. Not necessarily a contract, can be more like an estimate, with only
basics laid out.

BITUMEN -Natural substances such as asphalt or Malta, which consist mainly of hydrocarbons.

BITUMINOUS -Consisting of or resembling bitumen. Can be man made, such as those made from petroleum by-products.

BLISTER -An enclosed raised spot evident on the surface of a roof. They are mainly caused by the expansion of trapped air,
water vapor, moisture or other gases. Blisters on a roof may involve only the coating, one or more plies of felt or may involve
the whole membrane thickness.

BOND -A paid for premium through an insurance company, that affords consumers some protection against work performed.
$5000 minimum in most areas. To secure larger jobs, contractors will get larger bonds, over $1,000,000 not uncommon.

BOND BREAKER -A substance or a tape applied between two adjoining materials to prevent adhesion between them.

BUILT-UP ROOF (BUR) -A roof consisting minimally of a BUR (tar or asphalt) membrane but may also include insulation, vapor
retarders and other components.

BUILT-UP ROOF MEMBRANE (BERM) -A built-up roof consisting of plies or layers of roofing felt bonded together on site With
bitumen; either tar or asphalt.

BUNDLE -A package of roofing shingles, IE: a bundle of shakes, a bundle of composition shingles. Used as a unit of measure. 3
bundles to a square, 5 bundles to a square.

BURNOUT -Used to describe the effect the sun will have on exposed felt. Usually in relation to a hole in a shake roof, IE: The
sun caused a burnout between shakes and it leaked.

BURN THROUGH TIME -A measurement, used to describe the amount of time it might take burning embers to burn through the
exterior to the interior, i.e. A 1 hour burn time is equivalent to a Class A fire rating.

BUTTERFLY ROOF -A roof assembly which pitches sharply from either side toward the center.

CANOPY -An overhanging roof.

CANT STRIP -A beveled support used at the intersection of the roof deck with vertical surfaces so that bends in the roofing
membrane to form base flashings can be made without breaking the felts.

CAP SHEETS -One to four plies of felt bonded and top coated with bitumen that is laid over an existing roof as a treatment for
defective roofs.

CAULKING -Adhesive used to fill in small areas against water. IE: Around windows in a long bead so water won't leak in. Sold in
tubes, and applied by pressure. Normally by hand with a 'caulking gun'.

CEMENT ROOFING -A general term for a variety of trowel able mastics, asphalt or tar, which are used during roof construction
and repair.

CHALK(ING) -The resulting dust which occurs on a surface that is susceptible to Ultra Violet degradation.

CHECKING -A pattern of surface cracks running in irregular lines. When found in the top pour Of an asphalt built-up roof, is the
preliminary stage of alligatoring.

CLEAT -A device made of formed sheet metal which is mechanically attached onto which the fascia flange of a metal edge is
snapped, so as to protect against wind uplift.

COAL TAR PITCH (TAR) -A bituminous material which is a by product from the coking of coal. It is used as the waterproofing
material for tar and gravel built-up roofing.

COLD APPLIED -Products that can be applied without heating. These are in contrast to tar or asphalt which need to be heated to
be applied.

COLD PATCH -A roof repair done with cold applied material.

COLLAR -A conical metal cap flashing used in conjunction with vent pipes or stacks usually located several inches above the
plane of the roof, for the purpose of shedding water away from the base of the vent.

CONDUCTOR -A pipe for conveying rain water from the roof gutter to a drain, or from a roof drain to the storm drain; also called
a leader, downspout, or down pipe.

CONTRACT -The written form of an agreement, enforceable by law, between two or more people for doing or not doing specific

CONTRACTOR -A person who contracts to provide products or services at a set price or rate.

CONTROL JOINT -A control joint controls or accommodates movement in the surface component of a roof.   COPING -A
construction unit placed at the top of the parapet wall to serve as a cover for the wall.

CORNICE -A horizontal projecting course on the exterior of a building, usually at the base of the parapet.

CRICKET -The evaluation of a part of a roof surface as a means of promoting drainage of water from behind an obstacle such as

CUPOLA -A small monitor or dome at the peak of a pitched roof.

CURB -A short wall or masonry built above the level of the roof. It provides a means of flashing the deck equipment.

CUTBACK -Basic asphalt or tar which has been "cutback" with solvents and oils so that the material become fluid.

CUT OFF -A piece of roofing membrane consisting of one or more narrow plies of felt usually moped in hot to seal the edge of
insulation at the end of a day's work.

DAMP PROOFING -A process used on concrete, masonry or stone surfaces for the purpose of repelling water. Moisture vapor
readily penetrates coatings of this type. The main purpose of damp proofing is to prevent the coated surface from absorbing
rain water while allowing is to breathe moisture vapor out of the structure.

DEAD LOAD -The constant designed weight (of the roof) and any permanent fixtures attached above or below.

DECK -This is the actual surface on which the roofing will be applied. Usually plywood (3/8" - 1") or 1"x4"
or larger boards. DORMER -The house-like structure which projects from a sloping roof.

DOWNSPOUT -The metal pipe used to drain water from a roof.

DRIP EDGE - A device designed to prevent water from running back or under an overhang.

DRIPAGE - Bitumen material that drips through roof deck joints, or over the edge of a roof deck.

DRY LAP - A term describing the absence of bitumen between the plies of felt at the overlap in a BURM.

DRY SHEET - A ply mechanically attached to wood or gypsum decks to prevent asphalt or pitch from penetrating the deck and
leaking into the building below.

DUCT - A cylindrical or rectangular "tube" used to move air either from exhaust or intake. The installation is referred
to as "duct work".

EAVE -This is the lower, overhanging part of your roof. Typically down where the gutter is located is called the eave line.

EDGE METAL - A term relating to brake or extruded metal around the perimeter of a roof.

EMULSION - In roofing, a coating consisting of asphalt and fillers suspended in water.

END LAP - The amount or location of overlap at the end of a roll of roofing felts in the application.E.V.T.-EQUI-VISCOUS
TEMPERATURE - The critical temperature at which asphalt reaches the viscosity most favorable to good adhesion when applied
in a BUR.

EXPANSION COEFFICIENT - The amount that a specific material will vary in any one dimension with a change of temperature.

EXPANSION JOINT - A device used to make up the motion of expansion and contraction. On large roofs this provision for the
movement of the materials forming the walls, roof deck and roof covering is usually made by deliberately separating the
building into sections, and covering separation between adjacent sections with the expansion joint to allow movement but
keep out the weather. Expansion joints, unlike control joints, penetrate through the roof deck.

EXPOSURE -Used to describe the amount of each row of roofing, not covered by the above row. IE: If you look at a shake, tile or
composition roof you will see clearly defined rows. Each shake is 24" tall, how much do you actually see? About 10"
up and down. That is the amount of exposure. It matters because each row laps over the one below, to give good coverage and
to allow it's nails to penetrate the row below.

EXTRUSION - An item formed by forcing a base metal (frequently aluminum) or plastic, at a malleable temperature, through a die
to achieve a desired shape.

EYEBROW - A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from a building wall; Eyebrows are generally
located above windows.

FACADE -The front of a building. Frequently, in architectural terms an artificial or decorative effort.

FASCIA - Any cover board at the edge or eaves of a flat, sloping, or overhanging roof which is placed in a vertical position to
protect the edge of the roof assembly.

FASTENERS - A general term covering a wide variety of screws and nails which may be used for mechanically securing various
components of a building.

FELT -Paper, matted together by pressure and impregnated with asphalt to make waterproof.

FIFTEEN POUND -Felt commonly made in 36" tall rolls and sold by weight. 15 pounds per 100 square feet of coverage, with
one roll covering 400 square feet.

FIRE RATING -Measurement used by independent labs to determine resistance to fire.

FLASHING -Commonly any metal used on a roof to cover pipes, walls, skylights, chimney, or valleys. Can be waterproof paper
used around windows.

FISH MOUTH - A characteristic opening at the exposed lap edge of BUR felts due to loss of bond or wrinkling of the felt.

FLAKE - A scale like particle. To lose bond from a surface in small thin pieces. Sometimes a paint film
"flakes".FLASHING - Connecting devices that seal membrane joints at expansion joints, walls, drains, gravel stops,
and other places where the membrane is interrupted or terminated.

FLASHING BASE - The upturned edge of the watertight membrane formed at a roof termination point by the extension of the
felts vertically over the cant strip and up the wall for a varying distance where they are secured with mechanical fasteners.

FLASHING COUNTER - The formed metal secured to a wall, curb, or roof top unit to cover and protect the upper edge of a base
flashing and its associated fasteners.

FLASHING, STEP - Individual small pieces of metal flashing material used to flash around chimneys, dormers, and such
projections along the slope of a roof. The individual pieces are overlapped and stepped up the vertical surface.

FLASHING, THRU-WALL - Flashing extended completely through a masonry wall. Designed and applied in combination with
counter flashings, to prevent water which may enter the wall above from proceeding downward in the wall or into the roof deck
or roofing system.FLAT SEAM - A seam at the junction of sheet metal roof components that has been bent at the plane of the
FLOP - Cutting of felts into strips, coating the deck side with bitumen and placing (flopping) the felt onto the deck

GABLE - The end of a building as distinguished from the front or rear side. The triangular end of and exterior wall from the level
of the eaves to the ridge of a double sloped roof

GAMBREL ROOF - A type of roof which has its slope broken by an obtuse angle, so that the lower slope is steeper than the
upper slope. A double sloped roof having two pitches.

GLAZE COAT - A light, uniform mopping of bitumen on exposed felts to protect them from the weather, pending completion of
the job.

GRANULES - The mineral particles of a graded size which are embedded in the asphalt coating of shingles and roofing.

GRAVEL - Loose fragments of rock used for surfacing built-up roofs, in sizes varying from 1/8" to 1 3/4".GROUT OR
GROUTING - A cement mortar mixture commonly used to fill joints and cavities of masonry. On roof decks, the joints between
many types of precast roof deck slabs are grouted with cement grout.

GUTTER - Metal trough at the eaves of a roof to carry rain water from the roof to the downspout.

GUTTER STRAP - Metal bands used to support the gutter.

GYPSUM - A hydrated sulfate of calcium occurring naturally in sedimentary rock. In roofing, a type of lightweight deck made
from this pulverized rock.

HANDYMAN -Jack of all trades. That is an old expression but applies here. Typically someone with knowledge of various trades,
but not specalizing in any one. Handling smaller jobs such as normal upkeep.

HEADLAP -The amount of lap given to a material at the top of the application. Such as rolling out some felt and overlapping onto
the one below a number of inches.

HIP -The angled line formed at the juncture of two sloped sides, ie: A pryamid would have four hips. Where each of two sides
would meet.

HIP AND RIDGE -This describes the material used to cover the hip or ridge areas. Know also as trim pieces.

INSIDE DRAIN -A roof drain positioned on a roof at some location other than the perimeter. It drains surface water inside the
building through closed pipes to a drainage system.

INSURANCE -Commonly called public liability insurance. A special policy that protects the overall public from roofing disaster.
Such as a building catching on fire, kettle full of hot tar blowing up, passers-by getting hit with rock, etc.. Protects the owner
from lawsuit.

INTERPLY - Between two layers of roofing felts that have been laminated together.

IRMA - Insulated (or Inverted) Roof Membrane Assembly. In this system the roof membrane is laid directly on the roof deck,
covered with extruded foam insulation and ballasted with stone, minimum of 1000 lbs. per square.

JJOIST -A horizontally placed timber or beam set on edge to give support to a floor or ceiling.

KETTLE -Equipment used for heating bitumen to a flowing consistency.

KICK HOLE -A defect frequently found in perimeter flashings arising from being stepped on or kicked. A small fracture of the
base flashing in the area of the cant.

KRAFT -A heavy water resistant paper.

LLAP -The amount of the preceding material being covered.

LIEN -The right by a worker or supplier to hold or sell your property if not paid by the contractor for their work or products. You
must obtain releases that are originals and not copies, to assure all bills paid before final job payment.

LOOSE LAID -A membrane "laid loosely", i.e., not adhered, over a roof deck or BURM.

MANSARD ROOF - A roof which rises by inclined planes from all four sides of a building. The sloping roofs on all four sides have
two pitches, the lower pitch usually very steep and the upper pitch less steep.
MASTIC -Asphalt based sealant. Troweled, or applied by hand using rubber gloves. Other trades have other types of mastic

MEMBRANE -A generic term relating to a variety of sheet goods used for certain built-up roofing repairs and application. Also
used to describe the combination of felts and moppings of bitumen forming a single flexible unit and waterproofing system of a

METAL EDGE - Brake metal or metal extrusions which are secured at the perimeter of BURM to form a weather
tight seal.

MINERAL SPIRITS - A by-product of petroleum, clear in color, a solvent for asphaltic coatings.

MINERAL SURFACED - A heavy roofing felt that has very small granules embedded across its surface.

MODIFIED-BITUMEN - Bitumen modified by special processing, generally with the addition of SBS type rubber or atactic
polypylenes (APP). Some are non-reinforced, while others are reinforced with polyester, polyvinyl acetate, fiberglass,
polypropylene or aluminum foil.

MONITOR - A large structure rising above the surrounding roof planes, designed to give light and/or ventilation to the building

MOPPING - A layer of hot bitumen mopped between plies of roofing felt.

MOPPING, FULL - The application of bitumen by mopping in such a manner that the surface being mopped is entirely coated with
a reasonably uniform coating.

MOPPING, SPOT - The procedure of applying hot bitumen in a random fashion of small daubs, as compared to full
mopping.MOPPING, SPRINKLE - A special application of installing insulation to the decks. It is done by dipping a roof mop into
hot bitumen and sprinkling the material onto the deck.

MOPPING, STRIP - The application of bitumen in parallel bands.

MUD CRACKS - Cracks developing from the normal shrinkage of an emulsion coating when applied too heavily.NNAILER -A piece
of lumber secured to non-nailable decks and walls by bolts or other means, which provides a suitable backing onto which roof
components may be mechanically fastened.

NINETY POUND -Saturated felt matting with asphalt based coating and embedded with color chips. By weight 90 lbs. per 100
square feet. 100 square feet per roll. This is a waterproof product by itself.

NOSING -Metal edgeing of various widths but normally 10' long. Used along the eaves and up the rakes to cover plywood, other
layers of roofing, or just to give a nice clean look, especially when painted. Nailed to deck, or on top of new roofing in high wind

OIL CANNING -The term describing distortion of thin-gauge metal panels which are fastened in a manner restricting normal
thermal movement.

OPEN BEAM CEILING -When timber supports are visable inside and the ceiling is also the outside roofing deck. Common to
have 2x6, 2x4 tongue and groove boards as this dual use material.

OSB -Oriented Strand Board. An alternative to plywood, made from wood chips oriented and gluded in layers, to provide a
strong deck surface. Sold in 4x8 foot sheets, in various thicknesses.

OVERHANG -That part of the roof structure which extends horizontally beyond the vertical plane of the exterior walls of a

OVERHEAD, CONTRACT -The cost of doing business. The amount of rent, insurances, bonds, payroll, Payments, licenses, tool
repair cost, tires, gas, oil, etc.. Really any thing that must be met before a profit is shown. The more there is the more you have
to make, sometimes having higher rates as a result.

OXIDISE -To combine with oxygen in the air.

PATCH -Temporary fix for a water leak.

PALLET -Tile and other materials when purchased in quantity, will come on a prebuilt wooden structure. This is a pallet and the
place where a forklift would put the forks to lift the entire amount.

PARAPET WALL -A low wall around the perimeter of a roof deck.

PENNY -Unit of measure in describing length of nails.

PERLITE -An aggregate formed by heating and expanding siliceous volcanic glass.

PHASE CONSTRUCTION -In roofing the practice of applying the felt plies of the built-up roofing membrane in two or more
operations, separated by a delay of at least one day.

PITCH -A term frequently used to designate coal tar pitch.

PITCH PAN OR POCKET -A bottomless metal box placed on the BURM around irregular projections. These are subsequently
filled with coal tar pitch or mastic to effect a weather tight seal.

PLY -Refers to layers of roofing applied. Such as 4 ply, that would be four complete layers of roofing one on top of the other.

POINTING -The process where joints between masonry units, brick, etc., are filled with mortar.

PONDING -A condition where water stands on a roof for prolonged periods due to poor drainage and/or deflection of the deck.

POP RIVETS -Fasteners used to join pieces of metal that are installed by either compressed air assisted or hand operated guns.
Unique in that they are installed from one side of the work.

POUR COAT -The top coating of bitumen on a built-up roof.

PROJECTION -Any object or equipment which pierces the roof membrane.

PROTECTION BOARD -Heavy asphalt impregnated boards which are laid over bituminous coatings to protect against mechanical

PRORATED -In reference to warranties, this means the amount of rebate if any, would be less the older the roof is.

PURLINS -A horizontal structural member spanning between beams or trusses to support a roof deck.

QRRAGGLE ROCK - A specially designed masonry block having a slot or opening into which the top edge of the roof flashing is
inserted and anchored.

RAFTERS -The supports that hold up the roof and where the deck material would be nailed.

RAKE -The sloped ends of framed gable sides.

RECOURSE -The actions that you can take to recieve refund, judgement or penalty from someone for unlawful actions.

REGLET - A horizontal slot, formed or cut in a parapet or other masonry wall, into which the top edge of counter
flashing can be inserted and anchored.

RE-IMPREGNATE -To replace oils and bitumen in the components of the BURM which through weathering and oxidation, have
been lost.

RESHEETING -Commonly means covering existing roof deck with a new layer of plywood.

RESUPPORT -Installing support for a heavy roofing material such as tile.

RIDGE -The horizontal line where the tops of roofing rafters meet. Also used to represent the material used to cover this area.

ROOF -The assembly of interacting components designed to weatherproof and normally to insulate a buildings surface,
separated from adjacent assemblies by walls or changes in elevation.

ROOF COATING - A bituminous material, either a cutback or an emulsion, to protect the surface of the BURM but not necessarily
to re-impregnate it.

ROOF DECK - That component in building construction, which forms a platform on which the remainder of the BURM
components are placed.

ROOF DRAIN - The termination or fitting at the roof of an interior drain or leader, for draining rain water from nominally flat roofs.

ROOF SYSTEM - General term referring to the waterproof covering, roof insulation, vapor barrier, if used and roof deck as an

RUN -The horizontal distance between the eaves and the ridge of the roof, being half the span for a symmetrical gable roof.

SADDLE - A ridge in the roof deck, whose top divides two sloping parts of the roof so that water will be diverted to the roof

SCRIM - A woven or mat-type fabric that is used as a membrane sandwich between other material to provide reinforcement and
stretch resistance.

SCUPPER -An outlet in the wall of a building or a parapet wall for drainage of water from a flat roof.

SELF-HEALING -A term used in reference to a material which melts with the heat from the sun's rays, and seals over cracks that
were earlier formed from other causes.

SELF-LEVELING -A viscous material that is applied by pouring. In its uncured state, it spreads out evenly.

SELVAGE -The unsurfaced strip along a sheet of roll roofing which forms the under portion at the lap in the application of the
roof covering.

SEVENTY TWO POUND -A roll material used for the top layer of a hot tar roof. Weight of 72 lbs. per 100 square feet. Not
waterproof by itself.

SHEAR -Measurement used to determine the horizontal strength of an embedded object. Ie: How much force or weight does it
take to pull a nail out of wood.

SHEATHING -The boards of sheet type material, plywood or asphalt saturated sheets, nailed to studding or roofing rafters as the
base for application of the roof covering.

SHED ROOF -A roof having only one slope or pitch, with only one set of rafters which fall from a higher to a lower wall.SHEETING
-The actual deck material, like 1x4's, or plywood.

SHINGLE-FASHION -The pattern formed by laying parallel felt rolls with lapped joints so that one longitudinal edge overlaps the
longitudinal edge on the adjacent felts. Shingle fashion application begin at the low point on a roof so that one ply drains water
to a lower one and so on to a drain or to the roof edge.

SHINGLES -Small units of material which are laid in a series of overlapping rows as a roof covering on pitched roofs.

SIGN ANCHOR -A component usually formed with steel angles which penetrates the BUR and is fastened to the deck.

SINGLE PLY -A descriptive term signifying a roof membrane composed of only one layer of material such as EPDM, Hypalon or
PVC.SKIP SHEETING -Decking, using 1x4 boards with one installed, skip one, install the next etc.. Allows wood roofing to have
air circulation.

SKY DOME -A type of skylite exhibiting a characteristic translucent plastic domed top.

SKYLIGHT -A structure on a roof that is designed to admit light and is somewhat above the plane of the roof surface. BR>
SLATE -A dark gray stratified stone cut relatively thin and installed on pitched roofs in a shingle like fashion.

SLIPPAGE -It is the sliding, lateral movement between adjacent to plies of felt along the plane of the bitumen film separating
them, which results in a randomly wrinkled appearance.

SLOPE -Incline or pitch of roof surface.

SOFFIT -The underside of a part or member of a building extending out from the plane of the building walls.SPECS OR
SPECIFICATION -Short for specifications. All the information about a material and any requirements for installation.SPLITTING
-The formation of long cracks completely through a roof membrane. Splits are frequently associated with lack of allowance for
expansion stresses. They can also be a result of deck deflection or change in deck direction.

SPUD -The removal of gravel or heavy accumulations of bitumen from roof membranes by means of chipping or scraping.

SQUARES -A square is 100 square feet in roofing area. A roof of 1500 square feet would be 15 squares.

STACK -A vertical pipe projecting through a BUR that carries off smoke or gases.

STANDING SEAM -A type of joint often used on metal roofs.

STEPSHINGLE -In the construction of the BUR the narrow strips of roofing felts, cut from standard width rolls, that are applied at
the beginning point so as to assure uniform configuration of the specified number of plies.

STANDING LOAD -In roofing, the total amount of permanent non moving weight that is applied to given surface areas

STRONGBACK -A support used in attics to distribute weight.SUMMER/WINTER GRADE MASTIC-Type of mastic that can be used in
cold weather is called Winter Grade. It is formulated to be thinner in consistency to allow it to be worked when cold. Summer
Grade the opposite, to be used when weather is hot. Stiffer and will not run in summer temps.

SUMPA reservoir sometimes forming part of a roof drain. A depression in the roof deck of a building at a roof and delivery it to
the drain.

TEAR OFF -A term used to describe the complete removal of the built up roof membrane and insulation down to and exposing
the roof deck.

THIRTY POUND -Roofing felt that weighs 30 lbs. per 100 square feet. 18 and 36" rolls, one and two squares respectively.

TIE IN -A term used to describe the joining of a new roof with the old.

TIN SHINGLE -Thin metal rectangles about 4x8 inches.

TONGUE AND GROOVE -Wood boards with a groove on one side and a ridge or tongue on the other, to lock together for
TOP MOPPING -The finished mopping of hot bitumen on a built-up roof.

TORCHING -Applying direct flame to a membrane for the purpose of melting, heating or adhering.

TRUSS -A major supporting structure usually timber for roof decks.

TUCK POINTING -The re-grouting of defective mortar joints in a masonry or brick wall.

TURBINE -Air flow device used to ventilate attic areas. Mounted on the roof and driven by the wind.

UNDERLAYMENT -Materials used to complement others as a first of two or more layers.

UTILITY KNIFE -Hand held tool that can hold different types of razor blades.

VALLEY -Depression angle created when two sloped areas meet.

VALLEY METAL -Sheet metal used to cover valley areas of the roof.

VAPOR RETARDER -A membrane which is placed between the insulation and the roof deck to retard water vapor in the building
from entering the insulation and condensing into liquid water.

VEINING -The characteristic lines or "stretch marks" which develop during the aging process of soft bitumens.

VENT PIPE -A vertical pipe of relatively small dimensions which protrudes through a roof to provide for the ventilation of gasses.

VENTILATOR -Device installed on the roof for the purpose of ventilating the interior of the building.

VENTING -(1) The process of installing roof vents in a roof assembly to relieve vapor pressure. And (2) The process of water in
the insulation course of the roof assembly evaporating nd exiting via the roof vents.

VERMICULITE -n aggregate somewhat similar to perlite that is used as an aggregate in lightweight roof decks and deck fills. It is
formed from mica, a hydrous silicate.

VERTICAL APPLICATION -Roll roofing laid parallel to the slope of a roof.

WATER STOP -A device designed to protect the exposed edge of a partially installed BURM from water entrance.

WEEP HOLE -A hole which allows for drainage of entrapped water from masonry structures.WET/DRY-WET PATCH -Type of mastic
that can be used on wet or dry surfaces.

WHIRLYBIRD -See turbine

WORKMAN'S COMP -Insurance held by an employer in the case a worker is hurt on the job. This can cost more than 50 cents on
every dollar paid in wages, for roofers.

WRINKLE -A raised pattern of ridges running in a random fashion in a BUR.Call  San Antonio Roofing Company @ 210-341-7663
San Antonio Roofing Company Inc.     8800 Starcrest   San Antonio Texas 78217
Since 1984
Lic. # HR1-917867
"We Do Roofing Right"